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By all accounts, Jackie was a nice fellow who never got the acclaim he deserved. RIP, Mr. Lomax.
I had the pleasure of having a few beers with Jackie at the Liverpool Beatles convention back in 2004. A very warm and funny guy. Peace to you, Jackie.
great pic; never saw it before, thanks!
she wrote: “with velvet brown eyes and dark chestnut hair, he was the best-looking man I’d ever seen.” she is right!
Got it… its Joe Osborn
Yes, Joe Osborn an alumnus of the Wrecking Crew. Trivia fact: He played on some of the Partridge Family recordings.
@Maria.m I agree a 100%. I call him the silent Beauty (George)
i think he was not silent at all, but an in&out beauty for real.
this is a very special shot, as he is looking straight into the camera, thanks tammy once again.
yes Joe Osborn played on an amazing amount of hit/popular records. it’s incredible…
maria.m …. “There are brown eyes in the world, after all, as well as blue, and one pair of brown that meant heaven to me as the blue had never done”
I am very surprised that this rare photo hasn’t created a discussion of when it was taken, and what sessions it came from.
I believe there is a photo of George and Mal Evans in George’s book ” I Me Mine” looking like it’s from the same session.
My guess would be he was recording tracks for “Living in The Material World” album – any thoughts anybody?
I just assumed it was taken during the Sour milk sea sessions, Datina?, Hyacinth?, Mr Horse?
On 16 October 1968, accompanied by Mal Evans, Harrison fled to Los Angeles for a seven-week trip producing Lomax’s upcoming Apple L.P. Is This What You Want?, while Martin and the remaining Beatles mixed the White Album. This photograph comes from those recording sessions in the U.S. On 15 November he was at C.B.S. T.V. Studio in Los Angeles. He also bought this ES-5 Switchmaster and the Moog IIIP synthesiser the Beatles used in Abbey Road L.P. And while in a visit to Capitol he was displeased with the U.S. stereo mix of the White Album and re-mastered it before release in that country.
“is this what you want”??? (more questions)
Thank you, for reading my mind…that Harrison ‘remaster’ white album story is familiar to me. I read it in a book(Long And Winding Road; Neville Stannard) from the U.K. but NOWHERE ELSE!!! I had assumed the story to be untrue…but, now, your credibility is upon the scene and, naturally, THAT changes everything.
The immediate question is WHAT was George listening TO in L.A.? It couldn’t have been Capitol’s sub-master tape. That should’ve sounded perfect. Perhaps, Capitol had cut acetates for him to proof(but why?). Or, was it a test-pressing from the plant? Acetates aren’t used to ‘proof’ the final master tape…ARE THEY? George must have had an actual test-pressing. I wonder what he heard that he didn’t like. Was 24+ minutes too much for an LP side? Maybe the operator adjusted the lathe to make the grooves too tight…thus, too shallow for the stylus to receive the ‘full’ sound. That’s a long shot because I’m pretty sure that the magnitude of the release would have guaranteed a veteran to do the cutting. The only other thing that it could be is the ‘rills’(spaces between songs on a vinyl record). The master tape was edited with crossfades. The UK pressing had no rills…the U.S. pressing does. Maybe there was silence added at the rills when there should not have been. I don’t know how that would be done on a pre-computerized lathe. But, then again, I can’t imagine how an edited(spliced) master tape can have crossfades!
You know what I mean…right, henry?!?!?
Any other questions?
(Sorry about the length…this story has always ‘bugged’ me)
One more comment regarding the guitar. I know I’ve seen another photo from this session, and the Gibson was only partly visible in that one too. Are there any (possibly uncropped) one where it can be determined if he has the four knob, or six knob with switch model?
@Kwai re: crossfades,
When I use to play with making recording on multiple reel-to-reel machines and wanted to have two songs crossfade, I put the master of each song on different machines, then fed the output signals into a mixer and then into a third machine to record the finished, crossfaded product. It was a real PITA to get the second machine started at just the right time so that the beat would match. I would imagine a similar procedure was used in analog recording studios, except that they probably used the multi-track tapes to feed the stereo master tape.
Fantastic photo of George!
This I know by asking Ken Scott how crossfades, masters, and mixes were done. Crossfades were almost always done after mixing, by crossfading two mixes. Crossfading “Back in the U.S.S.R.” to “Dear Prudence” in mono involved playing back a mono mix of “Back in the U.S.S.R.” into microphone channel 1 while playing back a mono mix of “Dear Prudence” into channel 2 of the REDD.51 desk, and raising and lowering the faders correspondingly at the precise time. Both microphone channels were routed to the same Main channel of the desk (usually Main 1), which was fed to a third BTR/2/B machine. Since each E.M.I. Control Room housed three mono BTR machines, the third being used for S.T.E.E.D. echo into the echo chamber, then all effects should be used during mix down and not during crossfades. That is why crossfades were done with mixes and not multi-track tapes. Stereo crossfade involved playing back a stereo mix into microphone channels 1 and 2 while playing back the other stere mix of into microphone channels 7 and 8 of the REDD.51 desk. Both channels 1 and 7 were wired hard left while channels 2 and 8 were wired hard right.
By reading all the great work of the late John Barrett you can have an idea of how the L.P. was compiled. All mixes were cut and appended to a master mono or stero spool joined with silence rills. If later there was a decision to crossfade mixes then these would be cut again from the master spool, mounted on separate reels and crossfaded to a third tape, which would be the appended back to the master spool. This spool was cut into two master reels, each being a side of the L.P. These reels were sent upstairs to the mastering room. The cutting technician would then playback the both tapes while using a watch and write down any loud sections, while also monitoring phase correlation (in stereo masters). Then applied equalisation, compression and reduced stereo field when necessary, and transferred each tape to the cutting lathe to create the both disc matrixes using the written notes and the watch to open the grooves at the loud sections. Capitol master spools (side A and B) were compiled separatedly and sent to U.S. with a Capitol representative. At Capitol they could transfer both tapes again while compressing, opening or reducing the stereo field, adding reverb, and equalising again, or just cut the matrixes from it without further mastering.
During his visit to the U.S., Harrison was displeased with the master transfer they had done at Capitol, and decided to remaster again all four master spools, not from the tapes sent by E.M.I. but from the Capitol transferred tapes, creating one more generation tape (3rd generation from the multitrack).
All E.M.I. mixes were done to 1/4 inch mono or stereo tape running at 15 inches per second. Edits were usually made to mixes rather than multi-track tapes. Exception being “Happiness Is a Warm Gun”.
Regarding the BTR machines. Each Control Room had Bthree mono machines (i.e. BTR/2) and two stereo machines (i.e. BTR/3). Crossfading mono mixes meant that the S.T.E.E.D. or A.D.T. machine could not be used while crossfading. This was fine since these effects were applied during mixdown or reduction mixes. This third BTR/2 machine (actually a BTR/2/B) had to be switched from the usual 30 inches per second to 15 inches per second playback speed. Crossfading stereo mixes meant asking the amp room technicians for a third BTR/3 machine to be brought to the Control Room. Multi-track to multi-track mixes were employed during reduction mixes. This is why there were always two Studer J37 4-track machines in the Control Room for Beatles sessions.
Here, George looks nearly identical to the picture on the insert of the Wonderwall album. Could that picture have been taken on the L.A. visit???
No, it couldn’t have been…because Wonderwall was released on November 1, 1968. That was not enough time(only two weeks until Nov.1). I wonder when the White Album portraits were taken. The Wonderwall pic seems to have been taken after the White Album pic…even though Wonderwall was released 3 weeks before the White Album.
When I left the last comment, your two comments were not visible to me. There was no disrespect intended. So, thank you for the knowledge and for your time. I am fascinated by these ‘trivial’ details and facts. I have always had an appreciation for the quality of the Beatles’ recordings. They sound so good. Valve amps are capable of accurate reproduction of presence. Neumann microphones are so awesome that EVERY microphone the Beatles used at Abbey Road was ALREADY IN THE BUILDING when they went their on their first visit. We are all very fortunate that Beatles used Abbey Road. Somehow, recordings of the group sound better than most of what is being recorded today. I only hope that the ENTIRE Beatles’ section of EMI’s tape vault has been properly digitized in ultra-high resolution. This hopefully includes, but not limited to ALL multi-track sessions, ALL mixes, ALL album/single/ep masterspools, specialty recordings, promo film, videotape, and all else that decays or decomposes. Let’s hope Lenny Kravitz wasn’t allowed to purchase the 29+ minute Helter Skelter tape…and Love Me Do original tape is missing. But, there are probably others, too.
Should we consider crossfades to be one MORE generation away from the multi-track(4 total?)
Neville Stannard had another story that seemed untrue. He says that the original UK pressings of Rock And Roll Music compilation was mastered off of the WRONG tapes complements of Mr. George Martin. Have you heard anything like that about that album?
Kwai – I seem to recall that the pic on the “Wonderwall” insert was taken by Astrid. If so, this would probably suggest that it was taken in either the UK or Europe, unless Astrid “happened” to be in LA at the same time George was (whether by accident or design).
His hair does look a little longer than the “WWM” photo, however.
Crossfades were normally 2 generations away from the multi-track. Non-crossfaded mixes were 1 generation away from the multit-track. After that there were none more generations for U.K. pressings, since those 2nd generation tapes would be cut from the original mix reel to the master spool, and then again to the matrix (L.P. side) spool. If E.M.I. decided to make a greatest hits compilation, then all songs included had to be cut from their corresponding matrix spools and spliced into the new L.P. matrix spools. For instance, when E.M.I. decided to issue the Blue Album “Sgt. Pepper Lonely Hearts Club Band”, “With a Little Help from My Friends” and “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds” had to be cut from the original side A matrix spool of the stereo Sgt. Pepper L.P. But since this side A matrix spool had NOT the original mixes of these songs, BUT a crossfade mix of the three opening tracks of Sgt. Pepper L.P. then the whole crossfade mix was cut from the side A matrix spool and appended to the Blue Album side A matrix spool, without further mixing or tape trasferring. This crossfade mix survived in that spool until the late 1980s when Martin remastered Sgt. Pepper L.P. for CD, and so it was cut again and appended to the original Sgt. Pepper stereo L.P. side A matrix spool for digital sampling of the whole side A with its original duration. Unfortunately, John Barrett had already passed away before this transfer so it is not documented in his work. Luckily, the mono Sgt. Pepper L.P. tapes did not suffer from this coming and going from one reel to another for greatest hits compilation projects. Regarding the Blue Album “Back in the U.S.S.R.” track, this came not from the White Album side A matrix spool but a previous generation tape, from the original stereo mix BEFORE the crossfade mix to “Dear Prudence”. Hence, it should sound superior to the White Album track of the same name.
That info is priceless. Thank you for helping me understand the nano-details of the process. I have learned much. This isn’t just important…finally, I can accurately ‘file’ another piece of the most important(socially) history ever written about. Amazingly, I have only ever seen George’s remaster written about in one book(I have read many). That also tells us much about Beatles historical documentation. Much of it is simply algorithm-variety extrusion. This needs to change so that in 100 years fans can research why Back In The U.S.S.R. sounds better on the blue album than it does on the White Album. Thankfully, most of the chronology of the group has been accurately presented…but, only by a few(or, less). The real crime will be when nobody remembers what magnetic tape was. The group was many things to the world. But, most of what they are remembered for occurred a 3 Abbey Road.
That’s the magic that must be kept track of. The story of George remastering the White Album should be in ANY book that mentions said title. Not only was it an unprecedented event, it was another whole generation away from the master tape. In audiophile terms, that could have been the end of retail happiness for the U.S. version. There are many angles to view from. THAT’s why I will always regard this blog as a true blessing. We have things here…that just can’t be had elsewhere. For me, THAT is Beatle Heaven!!!
So, thank you, henry…and, Tammy…
(And, A Car…wherever you are)
So, if I understand correctly, George used the tape that he was unhappy with to perform the remastering . How can that be better than using the tapes from EMI? What did he actually do to it? Obviously, whatever Capitol had done…they hadn’t done enough of…EQ? Compression? Dolby?
This is also documented in Kehew, R. and K. Ryan, Recording the Beatles, Revised Ed., 2009. I do not have a copy of the book with me right now. I wil try to reconstruct the history of this master from Barrett notes and John C. Winn notes (which are also derived from Barrett notes).
On 4th November 1968 Harrison was interviewed by KPPC-FM DJ Charles Laquidara in Pasadena, California. The interview is found here:
Harrison takes about the Beatles’ following L.P. called The Beatles. Winn wrote: “Laquidara and Don Hall identify themselves to open the tape,
followed by the sounds of George settling in at the mic. He describes The Beatles as having “four sides, ninety-five minutes, thirty-one tracks” and offers to play it for the DJs after the interview. Since the fished album has thirty tracks and lasts roughly ninety-three minutes, it’s likely he had a rough assembly, which included the 3:11 edit of “What’s the New Mary Jane.” (We know the extra song can’t be “Not Guilty,” since George says he’ he’s written four songs for the LP.)” That is, Harrison had rought tape of the White Album.
Jackie Lomax’s L.P. sessions took place at Sound Recorders Studio, Los Ángeles. On 12th November 1968, Bernie Krause was hired to add Moog III synthesiser sounds to Lomax’s songs. “No Time or Space”, side B of the L.P. Electronic Sound (Zapple, 1969) comes from this session. Then this photograph is likely from the first week of November 1968 and was taken in Sound Recorders Studio, L.A.
Now comes the heavy technical part. Barrett writes NOT that the U.K. White Album tapes were cut from the original stereo mix reels (which he does for any other L.P.), showing how difficult it was for E.M.I. to document all the anarchy during these sessions. Mal Evans took a mono copy of some songs, Harrison evidently brought with him a stereo copy to Los Angeles, Lennon was taking home acetates and rought mixes. Peter Seller was given a copy too… On 17 October 1968, the White Album master spools for each side were assembled. Barrett notes that these were labelled TL18611 A, TL18611 B, TL18611 C, and TL18611 D. These constitued the matrixes for the White Album pressing, which were labelled YEX 709-1, YEX 710-1, YEX 711-1 and YEX 712-1 respectively. Matrixes YEX 709-1 and YEX 710-1 were issued as Parlophone PCS 7067. Matrixes YEX 711-1 and YEX 712-1 were issued as Parlophone PCS 7068.
On the same day, a copy of these spools (i.e. one generation further from the multi-track) was done, each of the four Capitol spools labelled TL18725 A, TL18725 B, TL18725 C, and TL18725 D. Martin took away these to send to Capitol representative, likely producer Voyle Gilmore, mentioned in many other places in Barrett notes. These were the tapes from which Capitol 1st mastering was done. Harrison heard the pressed matrixes and was dissapointed. Hence, he made a 2nd master BEFORE Capitol’s 1st master and BEFORE E.M.I. U.K. master (i.e. before YEX 709-1, YEX, 710-1, YEX 711-1, and YEX 712-1) from a copy of spools TL18611 A, B, C, and D (i.e. E.M.I. master spools). Thus, his master is one generation away from the U.K. release tapes but BEFORE YEX 709-1 to 712-1 matrixes. Harrison masters were labelled as matrixes: SWBO-1-101-J40, SWBO-2-101-J40, (issued in disc as Capitol SWBO 101 A), SWBO-3-101-J41, and SWBO-4-101-J41 (issued in disc as Capitol SWBO 101 B).
I hope this was explicative and does not confuse matters further.
I am sorry if it was a bit confusing. Harrison master was done from tape spools TL18725 A, B, C, and D. Effectively, a copy of tape spools TL18611 A, B, C, and D, thus, a generation away from the U.K. master tapes.
W O W!!!!!!, i don’t often think of the nuts and bolts of how the music gets to us, i just think they sing into a mic, and a record comes out the other end
Regarding “Back in the U.S.S.R.” stereo remix for the White Album and Blue Album.
According to Barrett’s notes the best stereo remix for “Back in the U.S.S.R.” was RS1, done on the 13th October 1968 and recorded on reel E70410, and the best stereo remix for “Dear Prudence” was RS1 done on the same day as the previous song remix but recorded on reel E70412. Found anywhere else in Barrett’s notes is the location of the crossfade mix between both songs. However, Barrett states that these two reels are either incomplete or missing by writting their numbers with crochets (i.e. [E70410] and [E70412]). This means that their content is documented in the corresponding Recording Sheets from 13th October 1968, but missing from the vaults, which in turn, means that the content of these reels was cut to be appended to the master reel for side A: tape reel TL18611 A. Lewisohn writes that on the long session of 16th October 1968, which lasted 12 hours until 17th October, crossfades for the L.P. were done and the L.P. master tapes reels were assembled. Barrett wrote nothing on the crossfade mix whereabouts, but states that on 17th October, tape reel TL18611 A was compiled to send to mastering for matrix YEX 709-1. Which also means that “Back in the U.S.S.R.” RS1 and “Dear Prudence” RS1 had to go back to reels E70410 and E70412 respectively.
Going forward in time to 1973. Barrett writes that on the 23rd March, tape reels TL22893 G and TL22893 H were compiled for the Blue Album. Since the stereo remix of “Back in the U.S.S.R.” used features not the crossfade to “Dear Prudence”, this means that RS1 from 13th October 1968 was used, by cutting it from tape reel E70410 and appending it to reel TL22893 H (i.e. Blue Album side B master spool).
However, this RS1 remix of “Back in the U.S.S.R.” did not stay on that reel, for on 6th May 1976 it was cut again to be appended to reel TL25358 D (i.e. Rock ‘n’ Roll Music L.P. disc 2 side B master spool). A copy of reel TL25358 D, called AR34608, was done on the 21st May 1976 for the Capitol version of Rock ‘n’ Roll Music L.P. Hence, the U.S. version contains a copy of “Back in the U.S.S.R.” RS1, being thus inferior in quality to the U.K. pressing.
Further forward in time to 25th September 1980. “Back in the U.S.S.R.” RS1 is cut again from the Rock ‘n’ Roll Music tape reel and appended to tape reel AR47694 (i.e. The Beatles Box, disc 7, side A, master reel, issued in World Records label).
With all these cutting and appending the tape E.M.I. was probably fearing that these songs tapes could get lost or ruined. Hence, on the 12th June 1981 a safety copy of all the White Album master tapes was done. This meant that all songs cut from the master spool had to go back to it (i.e. “Back in the U.S.S.R.”, “Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da”, “While My Guitar Gently Weeps”, “The Continuing Story of Bungalow Bill”, “Happiness Is a Warm Gun”, “Martha My Dear”, “I’m So Tired”, “Piggies”, “Don’t Pass Me By”, “Julia”, “Birthday”, and “Helter Skelter”). Hence, this was when the White Album master reel was compiled again. The safety copy reels were labelled AR49464, AR49465, AR49466, and AR49467. After this, Barrett’s notes finish, and he passed away in 1984. It is uncertain from which tapes did Martin produce the CD mastering. It was probably from the original master reels and not from the safety copy.
Add “Blackbird”, and “I Will” to the list of songs which had to go back to the White Album master spools on 12th June 1981. “I Will” stereo remix was cut on 28th September 1977 to be compiled on tape reel AR38198 (i.e. Love Songs L.P. disc 2, side B master spool). “Blackbird” stereo remix was cut on 15th August 1980 for compilation on tape reel AR47406 (i.e. The Beatles’ Ballads L.P. side B master spool).
For “Back in the U.S.S.R.” RS1 I missed a date. In September 1978, it had to go back to the White Album master reel since E.M.I. would issue The Beatles Collection box set in November of that year, containing all original stereo L.P.’s.
After the safety copy and before Martin’s mastering for CD, there was The Beatles: The Collection box set, released in October 1982. This was mastered at half-speed from original master tapes. Which meant that “Blackbird”, cut The Beatles’ Ballads L.P., would go back to its master reel.
Not only was that educational, it read like a Hitchcock suspense thriller. I was captivated by the intensity of it all. I have many more questions…but, henry needs to rest. The most valuable thing I learned:
The master spools are never to leave the studio(England). So…they make sub-masters to send all over the world. But, in England, the master spools ARE the matrices used to cut the lacquer for pressing records.
I wonder if Mobile Fidelity Sound Lab went to Abbey Road to cut their lacquers off of the master spools.
Long Live The Neumann Lathe!!!
Thank you, henry!
In E.M.I. Studios, the master tape spools were transferred to lacquer through compression, equalisation and limiting to cut the master matrices for pressing records.
Henry, this is tech porn, a simpering little amateur like myself could never get close to this knowledge, this is amazing. I don’t know how you know this stuff, i’m just glad you do.
A lot gets taken for granted because the Beatles’ recordings sound so good. But, it’s truly tech porn…and, if you dream of all night discussions about the Fairchild 660 Compressor and its role in Beatles recordings then you are addicted.
(Please pass the whipcream)
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